Mastering Plastic Recycling: What You Can and Can't Recycle in Australia

by Skipper Team


In Australia, roughly 76 million tonnes of plastic waste are generated annually, posing a significant environmental threat. Regrettably, only a small portion of this is recycled, contributing to the growing problem of plastic pollution. The impact of plastic pollution extends beyond littering landscapes. It affects wildlife, marine ecosystems, and even human health. Therefore, improving recycling practices is not just a matter of keeping our surroundings clean; it's about preserving our health and the health of the planet. Understanding the nuances of plastic recycling is not just about waste management; it's a critical step toward environmental stewardship. This guide aims to demystify the recycling process, helping Australians make more informed decisions about plastic use and disposal.

A Closer Look at Plastic Codes and Their Meanings

plastic codes

Introduction to Resin Identification Codes (RIC)

RICs are pivotal in the recycling process. These numbers embossed on plastic items, categorize plastics based on their chemical makeup, impacting how they are processed and repurposed. Each RIC indicates the recycling process and potential reusability of the plastic. For example, some plastics are more prone to degradation and may not be suitable for continuous recycling. Understanding these plastic recycling codes is the first step in effective recycling, and many Australians don’t know what these codes mean! So we will explore each one in detail, providing insights into their meaning and practical tips to enhance recycling effectiveness.

  • PETE or PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate)

  • Usage: Common in soft drinks and water bottles.

    Recycling in Australia: Easily recyclable, PET is one of the most common types of plastic in household recycling programs.

    Recycling Tips: Always empty and rinse. Removing labels is helpful but not essential.

    PET is a highly recyclable material and can be transformed into various products, such as fibre for clothing and new packaging materials. The recycling of PET not only conserves resources but also reduces plastic waste in the environment.

  • HDPE (High-Density Polyethylene)

  • Usage: Sturdy and versatile, used in containers for milk, shampoo, and detergents.

    Recycling in Australia: HDPE is readily recyclable, with most councils accepting it in curbside collections.

    Recycling Tips: Rinse thoroughly. Flatten to save space in recycling bins.

    HDPE is valued in the recycling market for its strength and versatility. Recycled HDPE finds uses in new containers, piping, and even outdoor furniture, contributing to a circular economy.

  • PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)

  • Usage: Used in plumbing pipes, shower curtains, and garden hoses.

    Recycling in Australia: PVC recycling is limited due to its complex chemical makeup.

    Recycling Tips: Consider donating usable items or seek out specialty recycling centres.

    PVC recycling is challenging due to the different additives and plasticizers used in its production. Reusing or repurposing PVC products is often a more viable environmental solution than recycling.

  • LDPE (Low-Density Polyethylene)

  • Usage: Found in grocery bags, plastic wraps, and bread bags.

    Recycling in Australia: Recycling LDPE is limited; however, some supermarkets offer collection bins for plastic bags.

    Recycling Tips: Clean and dry bags can be recycled at specific drop-off locations.

    LDPE recycling is growing, but still limited. Reusing these bags and opting for reusable alternatives can significantly reduce LDPE waste.

  • PP (Polypropylene)

  • Usage: Used in containers for yogurt, takeout meals, and plastic straws.

    Recycling in Australia: PP is increasingly being accepted in curbside recycling.

    Recycling Tips: Rinse and, if possible, stack similar items to save space.

    PP is gaining traction in recycling streams due to advancements in sorting technology. Its durability makes it valuable for creating a variety of new products.

  • PS (Polystyrene)

  • Usage: Common in takeout containers, meat trays, and packing peanuts.

    Recycling in Australia: Polystyrene is rarely recycled due to its low economic value and high volume.

    Recycling Tips: Avoid use where possible; explore local drop-off programs for large quantities.

    Polystyrene's recycling is limited and often not cost-effective. Avoiding products made from PS and seeking eco-friendly packaging options can mitigate environmental impacts.

  • Other (All other resins and multi-materials)

  • Usage: Includes sunglasses, DVD cases, and certain food containers.

    Recycling in Australia: These items are difficult to recycle and often not accepted in curbside programs.

    Recycling Tips: Reduce usage, and explore specialized recycling options where available.

    These materials, often a mix of different plastics, are challenging to recycle. Prioritising products with clear recycling paths and fewer mixed materials can significantly ease recycling processes.

    Plastics Not Suitable for Recycling

    paper recycling

  • Composite Plastics

  • Challenges: Composite plastics, which consist of various materials fused, present a significant challenge in recycling. The complexity of separating these different materials often makes the recycling process impractical, costly, and less efficient.

    Solutions: Consumers can play a vital role in reducing the use of composite plastics by opting for products with simpler and more sustainable packaging. When shopping, look for items with single-material packaging, such as glass, metal, or easily recyclable plastics like PET or HDPE. Avoiding overly packaged products, particularly those with multiple layers of different materials, can significantly reduce the demand for composite plastics.

  • Plastic with Residues

  • Challenges: Containers soiled with food or liquid can severely contaminate recycling batches. Such contamination can render large quantities of recyclables unprocessable, leading to their diversion to landfills instead of recycling centres.

    Solutions: It's crucial to develop a habit of rinsing and cleaning all recyclable containers immediately after use. This practice not only reduces the risk of contamination but also prevents the build-up of residues that can become difficult to clean over time. For plastics that are not recyclable but are compostable, composting offers an eco-friendly alternative.

  • Certain Plastic Bags

  • Challenges: Thin plastic films, commonly used in shopping bags, produce bags, and bread bags, can cause significant issues in recycling machinery. They often get tangled in the sorting equipment, leading to operational disruptions and increased costs.

    Solutions: Reusing plastic bags for as long as possible is an effective way to minimize waste. Consider alternative uses, like lining small trash bins or picking up pet waste. Many supermarkets and recycling centres have designated bins for collecting these types of plastic films. These specialised collection points often have the means to recycle them properly, turning them into new products like composite lumber.

  • Some Plastic Cutlery

  • Challenges: Plastic cutlery often combines different types of low-quality plastics, making the recycling process complex and economically unfeasible. The mixed materials in these items also lower the quality of recycled products.

    Solutions: Investing in a set of reusable cutlery for on-the-go meals can significantly reduce your plastic footprint. Many sustainable options are available, including those made from stainless steel, bamboo, or other eco-friendly materials. For events or situations where disposable cutlery is necessary, seek out compostable alternatives made from materials like cornstarch or bamboo. These materials can biodegrade under the right conditions and offer a more sustainable option compared to traditional plastic cutlery.

    The Challenge of Plastic Recycling in Australia

    plastice separation

    Australia's recycling capabilities are hampered by fragmented policies and lack of uniformity across states and territories. Consumer confusion and the absence of nationwide guidelines exacerbate the issue. There's a pressing need for integrated, consistent recycling practices across the country. The disparity in recycling capabilities across different regions in Australia not only creates confusion but also leads to inefficiencies in resource utilisation. In some areas, certain types of plastics are recyclable, while in others, they are not. This inconsistency can result in recyclable plastics being sent to landfills. We will examine the current landscape of recycling policies in Australia, the challenges they present, and potential solutions for creating a more unified and effective recycling system.

    Australia’s Recycling Strategies For the Future

  • Global Comparisons: Learning from Others

  • Countries with successful recycling programs offer valuable lessons. For instance, Germany's 'Green Dot' system and South Korea's meticulous waste sorting requirements have led to high recycling rates. Australia can emulate these systems by enhancing public education and investing in efficient sorting and processing facilities.

  • The Role of Government and Policy

  • Government intervention is crucial in shaping a sustainable future. Policies that incentivise recycling, penalise single-use plastics, and fund research into new recycling technologies can make a substantial difference. Australia could benefit from national standards for recycling, similar to those in the European Union.

  • Community Involvement and Education

  • Active community engagement is key to improving recycling rates. Local initiatives, such as community recycling workshops, school programs, and informative campaigns, can significantly impact how individuals recycle. These efforts can cultivate a culture of environmental responsibility and sustainable living.

  • Innovative Recycling Technologies

  • Technological advancements offer new opportunities for recycling plastics that were previously non-recyclable. For example, chemical recycling processes can break down plastics to a molecular level, allowing for the creation of new plastics with less environmental impact. Australia's investment in these technologies could be a game-changer for its recycling industry.

    Tips for Enhancing Your Recycling Routine

    child is separating plastics

  • Stay Informed

  • Staying informed is crucial in adapting to changing recycling standards and practices. Recycling guidelines can vary greatly depending on your location, and they can change as new technologies and processes are developed.

  • Think Beyond Recycling

  • While recycling is essential, reducing the amount of plastic we consume is even more crucial. By minimising our reliance on single-use plastics, we can significantly decrease the amount of waste generated.

  • Effective Sorting

  • Proper sorting is vital in the recycling process. Contaminated recycling can lead to entire batches of recyclables being sent to landfill.

  • Support the Circular Economy

  • Supporting the market for recycled products is critical in maintaining a sustainable circular economy. When you purchase products made from recycled materials, you're helping to close the loop in the recycling process.


    The journey toward effective plastic recycling is ongoing and requires the collective effort of individuals, communities, and governments. By understanding and participating in recycling processes, choosing products wisely, and supporting policies that promote sustainable practices, each of us can contribute to a healthier environment. We must continue to educate ourselves and others, innovate, and push for systemic changes to make a lasting impact. Every step towards efficient recycling contributes to a larger goal of environmental sustainability. Skipper’s efforts in reclaiming millions of ocean-bound plastic bottles are a powerful example of what concerted efforts can achieve. By educating ourselves and making conscious choices, we can significantly reduce the impact of plastic waste. Join the cause and learn more about Skipper's initiatives here

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